1. BaDoLex_FP – une BAse de DOnnees LEXicales Franco-Polonaise. Vers un dictionnaire electronique bilingue franęais-polonais
The author discusses the bilingual French-Polish electronic dictionaiy compiled in 1997-1999 thanks to the KBN Grant #1 H01D 020 13 and introduces the group of scholars who prepared it. The work on this dictionary is the extension of the research studies performed in the Institute of Romance Philology, University of Warsaw and sponsored by the European Commission’s BILEDITA Project, whose results have been madę use of.
The dictionary comprises 54,015 French entries and 60,109 corresponding Polish entries. The format provides for the following information: part of speech, argument structure, example of usage, semantic field. Only some limited information about the intemal structure of multi-word entries has been taken into account. The format can easily be further modified in the futurę by adding morę information. The description of the Polish entries is based on POLLEX, the electronic morphological dictionary of Polish.
The compilers have been using the available printed texts and also, in a limited rangę, electronic tools from the BILEDITA Project that enable one to prepare a dictionaiy semi-automatically on the basis of the original text and its translation. The database and the associated checking program function in unix (NeXTSTEP 3.3, PA-RISC processor) and linux systems.
2. Uimage de la femme a travers les proverbes et les expressions idiomatiques en franęais et en polonais
The author compares French proverbs using the word femme and Polish proverbs with kobieta and tries to answer the question whether or not the notion is presented in the same way in both languages. She has chosen proverbs believing that they reflect human judgments and convictions.
In the theoretical part the author considers the definition of the proverb and shows its character- istics that make it distinct frorn other conventionalised linguistic expressions. The practical part includes morę that 200 proverbs and idioms, grouped thematically. In the finał paragraph we find conclusions. The author notes that femme in French proverbs has morę or less the same characteris- tics as kobieta in Polish proverbs. They are mostly negative features, but one can also find proverbs with contradictory meanings. The stereotype of woman found in the proverbs is far from complete, being deprived of certain elements necessarily associated with this notion.
3. Structures textuelles en tant qu’expressions des categories conceptuelles organisateurs d’experience
The article is concemed with the relationship between text structures and conceptual categories that organise the knowledge of the world. The author tries to find out how the two types of categorial classification (taxonomic and merological) are realised by means of theme-rheme structures. These structures are understood to be the hierarchical organization of information, comprising three levels: (1) the global theme of the text, (2) themes of its segments bound with the corresponding rhematic sets and (3) themes of sentences linked to their rhemes. Reconstructing information structures is a cognitive task which is necessaiy, albeit insufficient, if one wants to understand a text. i.e. to construct its cognitive representation. In her analysis of selected texts the author wants to show the role of merological and taxonomic orders in integrating details into global structures when the representation of a text is being created.
4. Le parallelisme entre les verbes simples et les periphrases
The author tries to show the parallelism between simple verbs and the phrases madę up from a verbe support and a subordinated noun in French. The analysis follows Stanisław Karolak’s theory of semantic aspect, where aspect is treated as the conceptual category of extension in time.
The analysis includes selected expressions from the category of continuative static notions of open character (e.g. habitude, connaissance) and continuative dynamie notions of closed character (e.g. voyage) and also discontinuative notions (e.g. cri). The illustrating materiał comes from French fiction (Maurois, Dumas, Le Clezio, Flaubert, Balzac, Supervielle, Hugo).
5. Les limites de 1’unite phraseologique et les types cTaltemances a son interieur
The article is concemed with problems of how to define phrase units, i.e. how to determine their limits and potential variants within morę or less fixed language units. The author aims to draw the reader’s attention to those problems from the lexicographer’s perspective. She also describes concrete difficulties connected with finding plirases in language corpora (e.g degree of combin- ability, degree of lexicalisation) and shows that the fixed character of phrases and collocations is often only apparent (due to yarious types of grammatical and Iexical transformations).
6. Quelques reflexions sur l’equivalence semantique et syntaxique des expressions figees (au niveau du franęais, italien et polonais)
The author presents phrases and collocations from the point of view of their interlingual equivalence. She discusses various problems of contrastive phraseology, e.g. ways and criteria of comparing units on the formal (syntactic) level (the identity of the grammatical structure and the lexical form) and on the semantic level (the closeness of the conceptual figurative meaning and the identity of the virtual reference).
The author tries to answer the question if one can still speak about equivalence between apparently different phrases despite so many cultural and formal differences found in natural languages.
7. Constructions a verbe operateur en franęais et en espagnol
The author presents constructions which make use of verbal operators in French and Spanish. The subject of analysis is constructions with nominał predicates in the position of sentence arguments that make use of the following support verbs: avoir, ily a and tener, haber. The operators have been classified into three groups: positive, neutral and negative (or privative). One should notę here that the operator is interpreted here as the predicative verb (according to the current terminology used in „lexique-grammaire”) with the semantically causatiye argument in the subject position.
8. Analyse phonologique de certaines oppositions propres a 1’age des interlocuteurs
The study concerns the comparison of frequency and significance of phenomena that make up the algorithms of phonetic features anrong men, graduates of vocational schools, aged 15-17 and 22-24. The features have been identified from the recordings collected in the last 8 years. The observation of the characteristic speech features has allowed the author to formulate the provisional conclusion that there is a elear boundaty between the two age groups. This in tum allows one to introduce the provisional algorithm of features characteristic of a given age group, which can be subjected to further detailed studies.
9. Les approches de la subjectivite
The author presents modem trends in linguistic studies of subjectivity. Various studies conceming manifestations of subjectivity on the level of vocabulary, individual utterance, continuous text construc- tions and linguistic conceptualizations. The analyses are the evidence of the complexity of linguistic means signalling the speaker’s personal experience and referring to their intemal worlds of convictions, evaluations and emotions.