1. Bases de donnees lexicales electroniques – une approche orientee
objets. Partie I: Questions de modularite
It is taken for granted that apart from phonetic, morphological and syntactic information, lexical and semantic information must be taken into account in the studies whose result will be a successful automatic synthesis and analysis. However, some doubts arise here and they are discussed in this article.
The first issue is the necessity of making electronic dictionaries that should not only copy the contents of standard dictionaries with all their explicit information, but should also include some of the implicit information contained in traditional dictionaries, e.g. hierarchies of semantic dependencies. Some extra information should be added so that we should have polyvalent electronic lexical databases.
The major problem here is the adequate organization and presentation of the lexical information rather than the information itself. One should consider the best ways of describing the information in terms of contents and format that would meet the reąuirements of adeąuate presentation. lt should be expandable, modifiable and multipurpose, but the integral character of the database should be preserved. The data description should be generał, flexible and compatible with different theoretical approaches.
The article presents the major assumptions of such object-oriented description, madę ac- cording to the four principles of a good method pul forward by Descartes.
2. Essai d’une description des titres et des noms de fonctions par automates et transducteurs finis
The aim of the article is to describe the structure of the Polish noun phrases containing the names of military ranks, scientific and honorary titles, functions etc. The ralations which exist between varius components of the syntagm are taken into account: co-occurrence, im- compatibility, relative position of the elements inside the syntactic construction. To describe the specificity of such structures, the technique of the graphs corresponding to the finite State automata is used.
3. «Femme» – ce qu’elle fait et ce qu’on peut faire avec en langue franęaise
The author tries to describe the degree of petrification of expressions containing the word femme in French. In the theoretical part we find the definition of figement lexical (lexical freezing) and its parameters, whereas the analysis of the selected expressions and summary tables are presented in the practical part. Using Gaston Gross’s criteria the author shows several types of constructions and proves that the relationships between their components are characterized by varying degrees of figement.
4. Eventualite et supposition. Quelques reflexions sur 1’hypothese et 1’emploi du subjonctif
The article is devoted to the discussion of the notion hypothesis and the relationships between hypothetical clauses and the use of French subjunctive. The mood analysis of sentences intro- duced by the forms expressing hypothesis has enabled the author to distinguish the hypothesis understood as a possibility and the hypothesis-supposition. The first one is based on the speaker^ assumption that p is probable, i.e. it will have extralinguistic reality. The supposition in tums assumes two possibilities: p and ~p. This distinction is the result of conceptualization consisting in the creation of mental images that correspond to the content of p. If the speaker makes two mental images (p and ~p), s/he considers two possibilities and in this case we deal with supposition. If only one mental image (p or ~p) is created, we have the only possibility. The choice of the subjunctive would be connected with the supposition, i.e. with the sepaker’s distancing attitude towards the truth value of p. The indicative would express the possibility of p, which would, in tum, correspond to the speaker’s declarative attitude
5. Reprćsentations semantico-cognitives dans le cadre de la gram-maire applicative cognitive (exemple du verbe monter)
Studying the example of the French verb monter, the author presents the cognitive semantic analysis of polysemy earlier introduced by Jean-Pierre Descles. The analysis is concemed with the transitive and intransitive uses of this verb. The close study has shown that the syn- tactic pattems of monter do not necessarily correspond to their meanings. One cannot distin- guish here spatial uses from nonspatial uses, as the opposition belongs to the domain of lexical categories rather than syntactic schemes. J.-P. Descles suggests accepting three methodological approaches to monter, one might treat it as a polysemous verb, or as a verb having a basie sense common to all the uses of the verb, or — finally – one could treat individual cases of monter as homonyms, where each use has a different sense attributed to the same signifiant. Since J.-P. Descles suggests a cognitive approach and tries to find the cognitive archetype based on the analysis of monter, the author tries to leam whether it is possible to find a similar archetype for other verbs of motion. She also considers the transitive and intransitive uses of monter and the notion of space itself. Finally she discusses the relationship between the prototype and the archetype, always referring to the same verb, and assumes that the only possible minimal abstraction is acceptable for some verbs of motion.
6. Quelques remarques sur la conception prototypique de la representation textuelle
The article includes some methodological considerations conceming the application of the prototypical concept of language in text linguistics, especially to defming such basie notions as the text, the text pattem (texteme) and textual representation. The first part of the article is devoted to the evolution of the notion of prototype and the prototypical effects in cognitive psychology and linguistics in the last thirty years. Part Two deals with the application of the standard concept of the prototype to the description of syntactic text organization units called sequences. In Part Three and Four the author formulates the model of textual representation with special attention paid to the cognitive frames that organize the perception of everyday situations andm text pattems (textemes) defined as a kind of idealized cognitive model.
7. Le transfert metaphorique en diachronie: cas du champ semantique des adjectifs designant les qualites physiques
The article deals with the semantic changes of adjectives describing physical features and aims to verify the unidirectionality hypothesis of cognitive semantics, whose proponents be- lieve that the change goes ffom morę concrete to morę abstract. The diachronic study of 74 French adjectives has shown that the semantic evolution went in two directions. The metaphoric transfer of physical senses was very common, but in about one third of the cases the meaning transfer was from lf?hll to //NPh// field. The look at the data in the longer time perspective, including the Latin sources has been very interesting. The comparison of potential and realized schemes of semantic evolution has confirmed the unidirectionality hypothesis in almost 100%.
8. Structure du champ semantique des concepts changer/devenir
The author discusses the structure of the semantic field of French verbs of change and becoming and their syntactic realizations. She presents the methods of semantic analysis ap- plied in the construction of the field: the notion analysis of the semantically-based grammar, reflected in the meaning descriptions of the selected verbs of becoming, and the semantic analysis of the object classes that take the position of actants for these verbs. The results of the analyses are in the tables.
9. Problemes methodologiques et pratiques dans la description des sequences figćes
The author deals with the theoretical and practical problems in the description of phraseological units. It is the problem of defining the phrase itself, including variants in the description, replaceability of its constituents and the equivalence of phrases in different natural lan- guages, the problem currently discussed in contrastive studies. Ali these issues are very signi- ficant in the theoretical studies of phraseology and in lexicography.
10. ¿Dativo de interes, dativo aspectual, y si no…? – esbozo de estudio sobre la función del pronombre personal se en sus usos atfpicos
It might seem that the functions of the Spanish pronoun se (with its inflectional forms) have already been listed and described thoroughly in the linguistic literaturę. But apart from those well-known uses, the pronoun se occurs in contexts. which linguists consider to be untypical and characterize as an intemally incoherent class.
The author is mostly concemed with the so-called unmarked use. Making use of seman- tically-based grammar, she analyzes those contexts where se is not typical. She comes to the conclusion that although the morpheme se used in the preterite tense has some aspectual value, this cannot be its main function according to the principles of semantic grammar. The basie function of se is what might be called the distributive or delimiting function. Depending on the context, se can point to the terminative or recurrent character of the construction in which it occurs. On the other hand, the occurrence of this pronoun with some specific present tense predicates of the permanent type is the natural consequence of the distributive function. Ge- nerally speaking, it plays the role of the exponent of complexity of the semantic structure found in those sentences
11. La pragmatica di esitazione. II caso del futuro epistemico in italiano
The author discusses two basie types of distribution of canonical uses of the indicative mood in comparison with the epistemic uses of the futurę tense. Two socially significant values – sincerity and politeness – which often stand in opposition to each other affect the distribution.
The main principle governing the distribution is connected with the complete character of the information: the fuli information is expressed by means of canonical uses of the indicative, whereas incomplete information by means of epistemic futurę tense. On the interpersonal level the decisive factor is the emotional perception of verb forms. The canonical uses of the indi- cative are attributed the categorical character, whereas epistemic futurę is usually associated with the putative character.
12. Bases de donnees lexicales electroniques – une approche orientee objets. Partie II: Questions de description
In the preceding article the author presented the elements of the object-oriented description of lexical and semantic data. In this article he discusses the ways of organizing the world of language objects thus madę. We find:
- the descriptive schemata of the object-oriented approach, with distinct classes of predicates – constructors, accessors and manipulatora,
- the organization of object classes in the function of frames structured by I. Melchuk’s and A. K. Zholkovski’s lexical functions of the type ‘sense-text’,
- discussion of J. Pusteyovski’s system of ąualia structure,
- the use of G. Gross’s object classes,
- the relationships between object classes and their hierarchy, the relationships between object classes and the sets of operatora and attributes organized in the function of Scripts and frames,
- the relationships of the type part-whole,
- the comparison of WordNet type descriptions with the the object-oriented approach presented here.
Finally the author presents a detailed descriptive scheme of entries in the suggested approach and its completion with a French notion ennui.
13. Les notions de prototype et d’invariant semantique dans 1’analyse des categories grammaticales. La linguistique cognitive et 1’enseigne- ment des langues etrangeres
An important issue in teaching foreign languages, especially grammar, is the choice of an adequate method. Teachers often come across numerous problems connected with introducing and explaining to their students the grammatical phenomena that do not occur in their native languages. The author presents the cognitive description of the impaifait past tense and the subjunctive mood in French and shows the advantages of this method. The holistic approach toward a grammatical phenomenon and introducing the notion of the prototype and the semantic invariant can make it easier for students to grasp the naturę and functioning of the phenomenon. Thanks to it they can better use the language and at the same time see the differences in the ways different languages conceptualize the world.