Volume 32 (2020)

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Table of Contents

Igor Mel’čuk : Clichés and pragmatemes 9
Gaston Gross : Les équivalences discursives et les suites préconstruites 21
Francis Grossmann, Anna Krzyżanowska : Analyser les formules pragmatiques de la conversation : problèmes de méthodes dans une perspective lexicographique 59
Krzysztof Bogacki : Est-il possible de se mettre d’accord sur le sens à donner au terme de pragmatème ? 77
Wiesław Banyś : Pragmatèmes au pays de la prosodie 89
Alicja Hajok, Lidia Miladi : Le choix des structures syntaxiques peut-il avoir un effet manipulatoire sur l’auditoire ? 117
Ruth De Oliveira : “Ah non, je ne parle pas anglais moi. Je suis française !” Une contribution à la typologie des pragmatèmes 132
Ewa Pirogowska : L’image linguistique du Juif déjouée par les pragmatèmes. Le cas du discours antisémite et antisioniste 146
Kamila Łobko : Formules de remerciement en français et en polonais utilisées dans la communication en ligne (approche pragmatique) 157
Ryszard Wylecioł, Karolina Adamczyk : Ça roule ! — un pragmatème à décortiquer. Une étude contrastive franco-italienne 173
Anna Czekaj : Classement de métonymies et traduction automatique 192
Cosimo De Giovanni : Le palimpseste collocationnel : mécanismes productifs de formation des collocations métaphoriques V + N 210
Agnieszka Dryjańska : L’interculturel en classe de langue — analyse de corpus pour l’étude de différences et de ressemblances sémantiques du terme politesse en français et en polonais 233
Małgorzata Fabrycy : Les emprunts à l’anglais touchés par la réforme orthographique et leur variation dans la presse canadienne en ligne 258
Joanna Gadacz, Paweł Golda : Innovazioni fraseologiche nei titoli della stampa italiana: una classificazione dei motivi delle innovazioni fraseologiche 280
Najwa Gharbi : Les formules expressives de la conversation : délimitation et esquisse de typologie 303
Anna Godzich : Composizione-univerbazione? Le oscillazioni di grafia nei produttivi composti italiani a schema (N) VN sul materiale linguistico tratto da La Gazzetta dello Sport negli anni 2016—2020 314
Magdalena Perz : Du paradigme vers le syntagme — l’antonymie adjectivale : quelques remarques 335
Beata Śmigielska : Cadres, scripts, registres — complexité de traduction des mots polysémiques 348
Ewa Urbaniak : La reduplicación léxica como mecanismo metalingüístico 369

 

1. Clichés and pragmatemes

Igor Mel’čuk

Pages: 9-20

In order to properly classify the phraseme (that is, a constrained, or non-free, expression) No parking, a universal typology of lexical phrasemes is proposed. It is based on the following two parameters:
• The nature of constraints
— Lexemic phrasemes: the expression is constrained with respect to freely constructed meaning.
— Semantic-lexemic phrasemes: the expression is constrained/non-constrained with respect to the meaning constrained by the conceptual representation…

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2. Les équivalences discursives et les suites préconstruites

Gaston Gross

Pages: 21-58

A given predicate is defined by a set of properties which combine and which automatically generate all the sentences it allows. Among them, we note the number and the semantic class of the arguments which characterize it, the adjectival and adverbial modifiers which can be added to the scheme of arguments as well as all the transformations which affect each of these units. The speaker is responsible for attributing to sentences the set of all the forms that language allows him to generate. What has just been said can be considered as a definition of syntax…

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3. Analyser les formules pragmatiques de la conversation : problèmes de méthodes dans une perspective lexicographique

Francis Grossmann, Anna Krzyżanowska

Pages: 59-76

Through some examples, the paper illustrates the lexicographic approach implemented in the Polonium PRAGMALEX project, which aims to provide a pragma-semantic description of conversational formulas in French with their equivalent in Polish and Italian, highlighting their pragmatic values. The sociolinguistic or cultural factors that determine their use in the discourse are also made more explicit.

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4. Est-il possible de se mettre d’accord sur le sens à donner au terme de pragmatème ?

Krzysztof Bogacki

Pages: 77-88

The term ‘pragmateme’ has been coined relatively recently and therefore its usage is still hesitant and its definitions lack precision. This makes it difficult to delimit the scope of all that relates to the intuition of the term. We believe that two criteria are crucial for the identification of the concept. First, it would signify an autonomous linguistic unit implying an act of enunciation, characterised by the adequacy between selecting an appropriate linguistic segment and its application, with all that it entails as constraints…

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5. Pragmatèmes au pays de la prosodie

Wiesław Banyś :

Pages: 89-116

The presented text will touch on the issue too often neglected in studies of pragmatemes, namely the role of prosody in determining what is a pragmateme and what is not. First, the analyses of prosody and of its role in the determination and functioning of various linguistic phenomena (informational structure of the sentence, presupposition, relative propositions) are reviewed, then the definitions of pragmatems by I. Mel’čuk and X. Blanco with S. Mejri are presented, to move on, at the end, to analyse the role of prosody in the determination of the pragmatematical or non-pragmatematical status of constructions through analyses of cases of pragmatemes that should not be qualified in this way without precise indications on prosody…

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6. Le choix des structures syntaxiques peut-il avoir un effet manipulatoire sur l’auditoire ?

Alicja Hajok, Lidia Miladi

Pages: 117-131

The starting point of this project is the fact that we are constantly “under the influence of someone else”. From an early age, our perception of reality is shaped by the environment (community) in which we live, i.e. by our parents, friends, teachers, but also by the so-called mass media. Opinion-forming is undoubtedly deliberately instrumentalised through the implementation of a strategy aimed at obtaining the approval of its receiver. The objective of this study is to discuss different types of linguistic manipulation. We will also propose an analysis of different types of linguistic manipulation, in particular syntactic.

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7. “Ah non, je ne parle pas anglais moi. Je suis française !” Une contribution à la typologie des pragmatèmes

Ruth De Oliveira

Pages: 132-145

This work presents and discusses the development of the hypothesis according to which clitic doubling (pronominal reduplication), as seen in the sentence “Je ne parle pas anglais moi. / I do not speak English [me]”, has the fundamental structural and pragmatic parameters of the pragmatem (R. D e O l i v e i r a, 2018). Structural, because it is a compositional construction but selected as a whole by the speaker to respond to a communication goal associated with a precise utterance situation (G. F l é c h o n et al., 2012); pragmatic, since this device is a means of acting on the interlocutive context, allowing the accomplishment of a certain number of specific acts (I. M e l’ č u k, 2013)…

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8. L’image linguistique du Juif déjouée par les pragmatèmes. Le cas du discours antisémite et antisioniste

Ewa Pirogowska

Pages: 146-156

The concept of pragmateme as witnessed in various discursive settings is analyzed. It is demonstrated to be dependent on a diaphasic variant at work — it can be felicitously applied to utterances whose value hinges on the communicative context, and it proves inherent to the speech production of a given individual. Likewise, its value may depend on communicative circumstances and might be specific to a given speech community. Convenient examples are provided by the anti-Semitic and anti-Zionist discourses of the acclaimed French performer Dieudonné fanciers…

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9. Formules de remerciement en français et en polonais utilisées dans la communication en ligne (approche pragmatique)

Kamila Łobko

Pages: 157-172

Thanking, belonging to expressive speech acts, according to the classification by Searle (1969), can be regarded as worth exploring due to the fact that gratitude, as a component of value systems, is as the fundamental emotion underlying social relations, and thus reflected in the language, especially fixed expressions, crucial for linguistic politeness. The aim of the present research is to compare explicit and implicit formulas (as referred to by Kerbrat-Orecchioni 2001) of the act of thanking in French and Polish…

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10. Ça roule ! — un pragmatème à décortiquer. Une étude contrastive franco-italienne

Ryszard Wylecioł, Karolina Adamczyk

Pages: 173-191

The aim of this paper is to present, after a short introduction to what pragmateme, or pragmatic phraseologism, is and how we understand it as a fixed expressive phrase with affective and emotive load, the results of the Polonium project entitled “Pragmatemes in contrast: from linguistic modeling to lexicographic coding”…

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11. Classement de métonymies et traduction automatique

Anna Czekaj

Pages: 192-209

The paper is a continuation of the author’s previous work regarding the legitimacy of metonymy classification for the needs of automatic translation. The author attempts to solve the problem presented in the paper entitled Classification of metonymy and its usefulness in automatic translation and proposes her classification of metonymic expressions, which could be a helpful tool in computer translation.

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12. Le palimpseste collocationnel : mécanismes productifs de formation des collocations métaphoriques V + N

Cosimo De Giovanni

Pages: 210-232

In this article we argue in favor of a useful model to explain the productive mechanisms of formation of verb + noun metaphorical collocations. We postulate that verbo-nominal collocations, relating to human activities and relating to the fields of techniques, crafts, art and manufactures constitute a model for the metaphorical collocations. We will apply our model to metaphorical collocations with the French verb forger. For the application of our model, a corpus analysis will be necessary.

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13. L’interculturel en classe de langue — analyse de corpus pour l’étude de différences et de ressemblances sémantiques du terme politesse en français et en polonais

Agnieszka Dryjańska

Pages: 233-257

This paper investigates an attempt to apply a corpus analysis to the development of the intercultural approach to foreign language teaching through the semantic analysis of cultural keywords. Our analysis will specifically include the process of discovering the meaning of the three words: French politesse and its Polish equivalents — grzeczność and uprzejmość through their collocations collected in French and Polish corpora…

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14. Les emprunts à l’anglais touchés par la réforme orthographique et leur variation dans la presse canadienne en ligne

Małgorzata Fabrycy

Pages: 258-279

This article examines if and how the recommendations of the spelling reform from 1990 are applied and used in practice. We have focused especially on the loanwords namely anglicisms in the Canadian French and their employment in the Canadian press in electronic format. For that purpose, we wanted to depict certain details of the spelling reform concerning words of foreign origin, and more precisely those which are borrowed from British and American English…

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15. Innovazioni fraseologiche nei titoli della stampa italiana: una classificazione dei motivi delle innovazioni fraseologiche

Joanna Gadacz, Paweł Golda

Pages: 280-302

The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of phraseological innovations in titles of articles in one of the Italian newspapers La Stampa. In the first part of the article, key terms such as the phraseological norm and the phraseological innovation have been defined, taking into account various terms related to this process. Then, some innovation classifications have been presented. Finally, the analytical part describes 91 titles that are examples of innovations.

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16. Les formules expressives de la conversation : délimitation et esquisse de typologie

Najwa Gharbi

Pages: 303-313

This article first focuses on the defining criteria of expressive formulas for conversation (now FEC) in order to delimit their linguistic characteristics. Secondly, we offer a sketch of the typology of FEC based on semantic and pragmatic criteria.

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17. Composizione-univerbazione? Le oscillazioni di grafia nei produttivi composti italiani a schema (N) VN sul materiale linguistico tratto da La Gazzetta dello Sport negli anni 2016—2020

Anna Godzich

Pages: 314-334

Word-formation and compounding in Italian present many interesting challenges (classification of compounds, its interpretation and types of semantic relationship that may hold between the compound’s elements). This article attempts to examine a different one — the orthography of one productive compounding pattern in present-day Italian, that is Verb + Noun compounds. Various accounts of Verb + Noun ortography are reviewed, with special focus on the status of hyphenated words…

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18. Du paradigme vers le syntagme — l’antonymie adjectivale : quelques remarques

Magdalena Perz

Pages: 335-347

This paper raises and discusses the relation of antonymy in adjectives. Antonymy is considered to play an important role in organizing mental lexicon. This relation defined often in logical terms stands for paradigmatic relation, as presented in WordNet. However, the category of antonymous adjectives can depend on more than just the semantic qualities of a word. It is often highly context dependent…

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19. Cadres, scripts, registres — complexité de traduction des mots polysémiques

Beata Śmigielska

Pages: 348-368

The article deals with issues related to the description of polysemic units for supervised automatic translation of texts from French to Polish based on the object-oriented method by W. Banyś (AOO). Applying to the description additional tools allowing for the disambiguation — frames, scripts and register analysis — the author focuses on presenting the complexity of the description of lexical units…

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20. La reduplicación léxica como mecanismo metalingüístico

Ewa Urbaniak

Pages: 369-384

The aim of the present article is to analyse the metalinguistic function of the nominal reduplication in Spanish. The lexical reduplication is a mechanism that consists in repeating a lexical unit within one phrase. The study shows that the nominal reduplication presents metalinguistic functions that reveal the interest of the speakers in a number of semantic issues related to the linguistic categorization and the concept of prototype. What is more, the metalinguistic aspect of the reduplicative constructions play a crucial role in a variety of situations as it entails some intersubjective meanings that are of a great importance for the interaction.

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